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New Hampshire
State of New Hampshire
The Granite State[1]
The White Mountain State[2]
Anthem: "Old New Hampshire"[3]
Map of the United States with New Hampshire highlighted
Map of the United States with New Hampshire highlighted
Country United States
Before statehood Province of New Hampshire
Admitted to the Union June 21, 1788 (9th)
Capital Concord
Largest city Manchester
Largest metro and urban areas Greater Boston (combined and metro)
Nashua (urban)
 • Governor Chris Sununu (R)
 • Senate President Chuck Morse (R)[4]
Legislature General Court
 • Upper house Senate
 • Lower house House of Representatives
Judiciary New Hampshire Supreme Court
U.S. senators Jeanne Shaheen (D)
Maggie Hassan (D)
U.S. House delegation 1Chris Pappas (D)
2Ann McLane Kuster (D) (list)
 • Total 9,349 sq mi (24,214[5] km2)
 • Rank 46th
 • Length 190 mi (305 km)
 • Width 68 mi (110 km)
1,000 ft (300 m)
Highest elevation 6,288 ft (1,916.66 m)
Lowest elevation
 (Atlantic Ocean[7])
0 ft (0 m)
 • Total 1,377,529
 • Rank 41st
 • Density 147.3/sq mi (56.9/km2)
  • Rank 21st
 • Median household income
 • Income rank
Demonym(s) Granite Stater,
New Hampshirite
 • Official language English[9]
(French allowed for official business with Quebec)[10]
Time zone UTC−05:00 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−04:00 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 code US-NH
Traditional abbreviation N.H.
Latitude 42° 42′ N to 45° 18′ N
Longitude 70° 36′ W to 72° 33′ W
hideNew Hampshire state symbols
Flag of New Hampshire.svg
Seal of New Hampshire.svg
Living insignia
Amphibian Red-spotted newt
Notophthalmus viridescens
Bird Purple finch
Haemorhous purpureus
Butterfly Karner Blue
Lycaeides melissa samuelis
Dog breed Chinook
Fish Freshwater: Brook trout
Salvelinus fontinalis
Saltwater: Striped bass
Morone saxatilis
Flower Purple lilac
Syringa vulgaris
Insect Ladybug
Mammal White-tailed deer
Odocoileus virginianus
Tree White birch
Betula papyrifera
Inanimate insignia
Food Fruit: Pumpkin
Vegetable: White Potato
Berry: Blackberry[11]
Gemstone Smoky quartz
Mineral Beryl
Rock Granite
Sport Skiing
Tartan New Hampshire state tartan
State route marker
New Hampshire state route marker
State quarter
New Hampshire quarter dollar coin
Released in 2000
Lists of United States state symbols

New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Gulf of Maine to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Of the 50 U.S. states, New Hampshire is the fifth smallest by area and the tenth least populous, with slightly more than 1.3 million residents. Concord is the state capital, while Manchester is the largest city. New Hampshire's motto, "Live Free or Die", reflects its role in the American Revolutionary War; its nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite formations and quarries.[12] It is best known nationwide for holding the first primary (after the Iowa caucus) in the U.S. presidential election cycle.[13]

New Hampshire was inhabited for thousands of years by Algonquian-speaking peoples such as the Abenaki. Europeans arrived in the early 17th century, with the English establishing some of the earliest non-indigenous settlements. The Province of New Hampshire was established in 1629, named after the English county of Hampshire.[14] Following mounting tensions between the British colonies and the crown during the 1760s, New Hampshire saw one of the earliest overt acts of rebellion, with the seizing of Fort William and Mary from the British in 1774. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish an independent government and state constitution; six months later, it signed the United States Declaration of Independence and contributed troops, ships, and supplies in the war against Britain. In June 1788, it was the ninth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution, bringing that document into effect.

Through the mid-19th century, New Hampshire was an active center of abolitionism, and fielded close to 32,000 men for the Union during the U.S. Civil War. After the war, the state saw rapid industrialization and population growth, becoming a center of textile manufacturingshoemaking, and papermaking; the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester was at one time the largest cotton textile plant in the world. The Merrimack and Connecticut rivers were lined with industrial mills, most of which employed workers from Canada and Europe; French Canadians formed the most significant influx of immigrants, and today roughly a quarter of all New Hampshire residents claim French American ancestry, second only to Maine.

Reflecting a nationwide trend, New Hampshire's industrial sector declined after the Second World War. Since 1950, its economy has heavily diversified to include financial and professional services, real estate, education, and transportation, with manufacturing still higher than the national average.[15] Beginning in the 1980s, its population surged as major highways connected it to the Greater Boston and led to more bedroom communities. In the 21st century, New Hampshire is among the wealthiest states in the U.S., with the seventh-highest median household income and some of the lowest rates of poverty, unemployment, and crime. It is one of only nine states without an income tax, and has no taxes on sales, capital gains, or inheritance; consequently, its overall tax burden is the lowest in the U.S. after Florida. New Hampshire ranks among the top ten states in metrics such as governance, healthcare, socioeconomic opportunity, and fiscal stability.[16][17]

With its mountainous and heavily forested terrain, New Hampshire has a growing tourism sector centered on outdoor recreation. It has some of the highest ski mountains on the East Coast and is a major destination for winter sports; Mount Monadnock is among the most climbed mountains in the U.S. Other activities include observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motorsports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, and Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach in Laconia. The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, and has the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot (1,917 m) Mount Washington.